CONTEXTUAL FACTORS OF THE GENRE «ZOO GUIDE»
Pragmalinguistic approach to the consideration of the text involves an analysis of not only its internal structure (units of the content of the text and lexical-grammatical means), but also of its extralinguistic factors that have a direct influence on the creation of the text and its specific
features. The main extralinguistic factors are the sphere of activity and the communication situation. Among the elements of the communication situation we distinguish the communicative purpose, the subject of communication, the addressant, the addressee and the additional conditions of communication. As an example, the sphere of activity as well as the addressant and recipient at different times of existence of the German zoo guides, which have not yet been the subject of scientific research, were examined. The addressants are directors, curators of the zoo or the person "outside the zoo", and as addressees act the (potential) visitors to the zoo. Since the zoo guides belong to the communication, which covers the transfer of professional knowledge to the interested public, are transfer-texts and aimed at reducing the difference in knowledge between the participants of the communication, they are placed in several spheres at once, namely in the sphere of science (the affiliation is signaled by a professional vocabulary in the field of zoology and geography, which, however, is clear to most recipients, the specific presentation of material for lay people – explanations, definitions ("direct" and "hidden"), illustration – exemplification, metaphorization, comparison), in the sphere of leisure activities (the content of the zoo guides, distancing from the everyday life) and are an integral part of the «zoo institution» together with «competing» texts (magazines, newspapers, flyers, books, broshures, hypertexts, entrance tickets, annual reports). The fact, that zoo guides appear as one of the first forms of genre «guide», required its detailed analysis.
2. Brinker, Klaus. Linguistische Textanalyse. Eine Einführung in Grundbegriffe und Methoden. 8. neu bear., erw. Aufl. – Berlin: Schmidt, 2014. – 188 S.
3. Heinemann, Margot. Textsorten des Bereichs Hochschule und Wissenschaft. In: Brinker, Klaus/Antos, Gerd/Heinemann, Wolfgang/Sager, Sven F. (Hg,): Text- und Gesprächslinguistik, Ein internationales Handbuch. – Berlin: de Gruyter (1. Halbband), 2000. – S. 702-710.
4. Hochadel, Oliver. Im Angesicht des Affen. Die Besucher des Tiergartens im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Nessel, Sabine/Schlüpmann, Heide (Hg.): Zoo und Kino. Mit Beiträgen zu Bernhard und Michael Grzimeks Film- und Fernseharbeit. – Frankfurt am Main/Basel: Stroemfeld, 2012. – S. 29-49.
5. Möhn, Dieter. Textsorten und Wissenstransfer. In: Brinker, Klaus/Antos, Gerd/Heinemann, Wolfgang/Sager, Sven F. (Hg,): Text- und Gesprächslinguistik, Ein internationales Handbuch. – Berlin: de Gruyter (1. Halbband), 2000. – S. 561-574.
6. Steinkrüger, Jan-Erik. Thematisierte Welten: Über Darstellungspraxen in Zoologischen Gärten und Vergnügungsparks. – Bielefeld: Transcript, 2013. – 348 S.