VERBALIZATION OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL IMAGE SYMBOLS IN AMERICAN POETIC SPEECH
The article deals with image symbols in American poetic texts, in particular, with linguistic and semantic principles of their formation and the peculiarities of their functioning in poetic speech. The content of the concept of “image symbol” is studied, linguistic and stylistic features of interpretation of symbols in poetic texts are investigated, the structure of a symbolic image in the context of its semantics is determined.
According to the studies of some linguists the main functions of symbolic images are representative, textual, communicative, pragmatic and cognitive. Representative function distinguishes the image symbol from the metaphor used in the text for the purpose of description. Being presented in the text, the image symbol structures it in a certain way, that is, forms the composition of the text and realizes its aesthetic influence on the reader. Image symbols serve as starting points in the interpretation of the text, and this is their text-forming function.The communicative-pragmatic function of the image symbols as a means of communication is most clearly manifested in proper names, which act as symbols in poetic texts. The cognitive function of image symbols is realized by using the literal meaning of a word and its associations in cognitive activity during its objectification.
The article focuses on the study of semantic features of image symbols, which are divided into objective and unobjective ones. Objective include symbols that denote the objects of animate and inanimate nature, which are directed by human activity, feelings, thoughts. According to our observation, such images are used in American poetry in a traditional and mature sense. In addition, the article deals with the so-called biomorphic symbols, which include animalistic, plant and ornithological characters. Particularly, we examine the illustrations of American poetry in which there is a realization of semantic potential of ethnic and cultural image symbols of grass, tree, crow, and other objects with their symbolic significance in American traditional culture.
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