THE ROLE OF THE POSTPOSITIVE COMPONENT IN THE FORMATION OF THE SEMANTICS OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS

  • Oksana Serhiivna Vorobiova
Keywords: phrasal verb / verb with postpositive component, postpositive component / postpositive, wordforming derivation, semantics, motivation / non-motivation, systemic relations

Abstract

Purpose. The article focuses on the role of postpositive component (postpositive) in the formation of the complex semantics of the English phrasal verb.

The object of the study is the phrasal verbs with pospositive components on and off which are determined by the primary semantic opposition, high productivity and usage.

Methods. Methodology of the study is based on the application of the methods of component and definition analysis, the method of paraphrasing, and the descriptive method which enables to single out and to describe the semes, fixed in the semantics of the source verbs and postpositive components on/off as parts of the corresponding phrasal verbs, and, in turn, makes it possible to identify presence or absence of word-forming derivation and motivation between source verbs and phrasal verbs under consideration.

Results. As a result of the research, semantic classification of postpositive components on and off has been compiled; semantic parallels and systemic relations existing between them have been established and illustrated; the conditions of presence or absence of word-forming derivation between the source verbs and the phrasal verbs with the indicated postpositive components as well as the peculiarities of its realization have been defined.

Conclusions. The study of the semantics of postpositive components on and off, which make up word-building and semantically derived phrasal verbs with corresponding components, has enabled to distinguish three main types of these components, among which are adverbial postpositive, that retains its specific lexical meaning (usually locative or phasal (temporal) meaning, as well as the way of the action) and, joining the source verb, only modifies its meaning in the formation of the so-called motivated phrasal verbs in terms of word-building derivation. Idiomatic/lexical postpositive, are formed by the verb and as a result of word-building derivation a new semantically unmotivated lexeme appears, the meaning of which cannot be deduced from the sum of the meanings of its components and emphatic postpositive. That only enhances the aspectual shade embedded in the semantics of the source verb, indicating the absence of word-forming derivation between the source verbs and the phrasal verbs derived from them.

The existence of typical semantic parallels between postpositive components on and off is confirmed by the functioning of these units within three common semantic types, among which are locative, phasal (temporal) and qualitative (the latter implies in this context the explication of the way of the action), with the main differential feature being the implementation of the above common prototype meanings (locative, phasal (temporal) and qualitative) at the expense of the meanings of the verbs with pospositive components on and off, which are specific, that is, different, typical only either of phrasal verbs with on or only of those with off.

Systemic relations between the studied units are manifested via the presence of antonymic correlations between them which, in turn, can be accounted for by the primary (spatial) semantic opposition of postpositives on – off "onto (surface)" – "from (surface)".

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Published
2019-12-27
Pages
18-23
Section
SECTION 2 FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL UNITS